Wounded Warriors with TBI Biography Information

Course Directors

Dr. Rory A. Cooper

Distinguished Professor, FISA/PVA Chair, Department of Rehabilitation and Technology, University of Pittsburgh 
Director, Human Engineering Research Laboratories
VA Rehabilitation Research and Development Center of Excellence fore Wheelchairs and Associated Rehabilitation Engineering
Pittsburgh, PA

Contact Information
Human Engineering Research Laboratories
VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System
6425 Penn Avenue, Suite 400
Pittsburgh, PA 15206
(412) 822-3700

Rory A. Cooper, PhD received the BS and MEng degrees in electrical engineering for California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo in 1985 and 1986, respectively. He received the Ph.D. degree in electrical and computer engineering with a concentration in bioengineering from University of California at Santa Barbara in 1989. He is FISA & Paralyzed Veterans of America (PVA) Chair and Distinguished Professor of the Department of Rehabilitation Science and Technology, and professor of Bioengineering, Mechanical Engineering, Physical Medicine & Rehab, and Orthopedic Surgery at the University of Pittsburgh. Dr. Cooper is Founding Director and VA Senior Research Career Scientist of the VA Rehabilitation Research and Development Center of Excellence in Pittsburgh. He is also the Co-Director of the NSF Quality of Life Technology Engineering Research Center, a joint effort between the University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University.

He is the Editor of the journal Assistive Technology and the AT Research Book Series of IOS Press. Dr. Cooper serves or has served on the editorial boards of several prominent peer-reviewed journals in the fields of rehabilitation and bioengineering. He has received multiple prestigious awards to include the Olin Teague Award, Paul Magnuson Award, U.S. Army Outstanding Civilian Service Medal, James Peters Award, Maxwell J. Schleifer Award,DaVinci Lifetime Achievement Award, Veteran’s Leadership Program Veteran of the Year, and a member of the inaugural class of the Spinal Cord Injury Hall of Fame. Dr. Cooper has authored or co-authored over 200 peer-reviewed journal publications. He has ten patents awarded or pending. Dr. Cooper is the author of two books: Rehabilitation Engineering Applied to Mobility and Manipulation and Wheelchair Selection and Configuration, and co-editor of An Introduction to Rehabilitation Engineering, Care of the Combat Amputee, and the Warrior Transition Leader Medical Rehabilitation Handbook. Dr. Cooper is an elected Fellow of the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA), the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE), and the Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES). Dr. Cooper has been an invited lecturer at many institutions around the world, for example the National Academies of Sciences Distinctive Voices Lecture, and was awarded Honorary Professor at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Xi’an Jiatong University. He has also been elected to Eta Kappa Nu, Tau Beta Pi, and Sigma Xi honorary societies.   

Dr. Cooper is a former President of RESNA, and a member of the RESNA/ANSI and ISO Wheelchair Standards Committees, and IEEE-EMBS Medical Device Standards Committee. In 1988, he was a bronze medalist in the Paralympic Games, Seoul, Republic of Korea. He was on the steering committee for the 1996 Paralympic Scientific Congress held in Atlanta, GA, and the Sports Scientist for the 2008 U.S. Paralympic Team in Beijing, China. In 2009, Dr. Cooper was featured on a Cheerios cereal box for his many achievements. He has been a member of the U.S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services – Medicare Advisory Committee, Steering Committee of the Academy of PM&R on Research Capacity Building. and Chair of the National Advisory Board on Medical Rehabilitation Research, National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, and National Academy of Sciences Keck Foundation Initiative on Human Health Span Steering Committee. Dr. Cooper is a U.S. Army veteran with a spinal cord injury and a Director of the Paralyzed Veterans of America Research Foundation. He currently serves as a member of the U.S. Secretary of Veterans Affairs Prosthetics & Special Disability Programs Advisory Committee, U.S. Department of Defense Health Board Subcommittee on Amputation and Orthopedics, and the Board of Directors of Easter Seals. Dr. Cooper has actively collaborated with the Indian Spinal Injuries Centre on increasing access to quality services and devices for people with disabilities in India and throughout developing countries.

COL Paul F. Pasquina


Colonel (RET), U.S. Army Medical Corps
Residency Director and Chair, Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation  
Director, Center for Rehabilitation Sciences Research
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Walter Reed National Military Medical Center

Contact Information
Center for Rehabilitation Sciences Research
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
8901 Wisconsin Ave.
Bethesda, MD 20889 


Paul F. Pasquina, M.D. is the Residency Director and Chair, Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and Director of the Center for Rehabilitation Sciences Research at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center.  Dr. Pasquina retired from the United States Army Medical Corps in 2012 as Chief of the Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center and the Director of the Center for Rehabilitation Sciences Research (CRSR) at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS).   He is a graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point and USUHS.  In addition to being board certified in Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R), he is also board certified in Electrodiagnostic Medicine and Pain Medicine.  He completed a fellowship in sports medicine and remains interested in all aspects of musculoskeletal medicine especially as it applies to individuals with disabilities. 

He is the specialty consultant to the Army Surgeon General for Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and a Secretarial appointee on the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Advisory Committee for Prosthetics and Special Disabilities Programs.  Dr. Pasquina has authored multiple book chapters, journal articles and policy papers.  He has served as the PM&R Residency Program Director and Medical Advisor to the North Atlantic Regional Medical Command for quality healthcare. He has received multiple military awards, as well as awards for teaching and mentorship, including the U.S. Army’s “A” Proficiency Designation for academic excellence, the Order of Military Medical Merit, and Honorary Fellow of the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA).

Guest Faculty and Presenters 

Lynn Greenspan, OD

Lynn Greenspan, OD

Assistant Professor

Pennsylvania College of Optometry



Dr. Lynn Greenspan feels mental and physical endurance are common stumbling blocks during the rehabilitation process and in the eventual “return-to-work” after TBI.  Classic post-concussion symptoms include headache, dizziness, nausea, balance problems, light and noise sensitivity, sleep problems and emotional issues.  Visual complaints include blurry or double vision, eye fatigue, loss of place and swimming of words on the page while reading, and difficulty sustaining attention on visual tasks.  The symptoms listed all share a common thread of endurance difficulty in that these symptoms may deteriorate over time upon repetition of the provoking activities. Do our clinical tests assess endurance measures? A “once and done” type test yields merely a single finding and if that finding is normal would it remain normal after several repetitions over time? Mental endurance is required to sustain intellectual activity against boredom lethargy frustration hyperactivity and overstimulation. Tests of mental endurance have been suggested as a relevant measure in ongoing Alzheimer’s disease.   Athletic endurance is the capacity to exercise for an extended duration without tiring and is essential in sports such as triathlon and long distance running. Athletic endurance is sometimes measured by comparing the average heart rate after the first 15 min. and the second 15 min. of a 30 min. workout.  A 5%-10% increase in heart rate is considered to be normal however any higher and it might indicate reduced endurance. Is there a similar measure for visual endurance?  In this presentation visual symptoms and findings after TBI will be discussed. Measures of visual endurance in accommodation, convergence and ocular motility will be suggested. The effects of poor visual endurance during the rehabilitation process and again in the eventual return to work will be highlighted. Congruity between visual, vestibular and vestibulo-ocular rehabilitation is presented as a model for endurance rehabilitation following TBI.

John D. Corrigan, PhD


John D. Corrigan, PhD

Professor, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Ohio State University




John D. Corrigan, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at Ohio State University and Director of the Ohio Valley Center for Brain Injury Prevention and Rehabilitation, which among other activities is the designated lead agency in the state of Ohio for TBI policy and planning. He is Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. Dr. Corrigan is the Project Director for the Ohio Regional Traumatic Brain Injury Model System and chairs the Executive Committee of the TBI Model Systems Project Directors. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Board on the Health of Select Populations, and the Neurological & Behavioral Health Subcommittee of the Defense Health Board. He has provided consultation to the Department of Defense, the Department of Veterans Affairs and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and has served on three IOM committees examining the health and well-being of military personnel. Dr. Corrigan is a member of the Board of Directors of the Brain Injury Association of America. He has received many awards for his service and research in brain injury rehabilitation, including the Brain Injury Association of America’s William Fields Caveness Award, the 2007 Robert L. Moody Prize and the Gold Key Award from the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine.    

Ronald Drach

Ronald Drach

President, Executive Consultant Education and Training for University of Pittsburgh Human Engineering Research Laboratories 

Drach Consulting, LLC



After losing a leg as a result of combat in Vietnam, Ron Drach left the U.S. Army in 1967 with a Purple Heart and was medically retired and soon focused his life working to help his fellow disabled veterans. Following 2½ years with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), he joined the staff of the Disabled American Veterans in 1970. Beginning in their DAV’s Pittsburgh office, Ron rapidly rose to become the organization’s national employment director in 1975. He was the first Vietnam veteran to be appointed a director at DAV. In this post, he established the reputation he maintains today as one of the nation’s foremost authorities on employment issues affecting veterans and others whose lives have been affected by disabilities. Ron’s responsibilities led him to provide significant input into America’s response to the needs of veterans affected by post-traumatic stress disorder, homelessness, racial and gender discrimination, and other socio-economic issues. He became a leading voice on questions involving Social Security disability benefits, as well as efforts to remove barriers that impede the lives and employment of persons with disabilities. Many times throughout his career, Ron has appeared before Congressional committees, offering expertise and recommendations for legislative change. After leaving the DAV, Ron was employed by the Labor Department’s Veterans’ Employment and Training Service (VETS). He was formerly the Director of Government and Legislative Affairs, responsible for working with Congressional staff, the Department’s Office of the Solicitor, and others within the Department of Labor on all legislative employment issues that affect the Departments of Labor, Veterans Affairs, and Defense. He is currently the President of Drach Consulting, LLC. Over the years, Ron served on many commissions established by the VA, Labor Department, congressional committees, and others involved in enhancing the lives of disabled veterans and other people with disabilities. Ron served four years as a member of DOD’s Recovering Warrior Task Force after being appointed by former DOD Secretary Gates. He has also served on the governing boards of the President’s Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities, the National Coalition of Homeless Veterans, the National Resource Directory and others. Ron's high-profile volunteer activity has included service as a team leader for the U.S. Paralympics Sitting Volleyball Team that competed in the International Paralympics Competition in 2000 in Sydney, Australia. He was one of the Founders and served as a member of the Board of Directors for the Wounded Warrior Project for ten years, serving four years as its President. Ron was appointed to Wounded Warrior Project’s Advisory Council. He also serves on the Boards of TransCen, United Spinal Association, and the Advisory Council of Thanks USA.

Inbal Eshel, MA, CCC-SLP

Inbal Eshel, MA, CCC-SLP

Senior Principle Scientist 

Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center/General Dynamics Health Solutions




With over a dozen years of experience in brain injury rehabilitation, Inbal Eshel, Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP), currently provides subject matter expertise to the Clinical Division of the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center (DVBIC) on topics pertaining to traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation, with a specialty focus on cognitive rehabilitation.  At DVBIC, Ms. Eshel is involved in the development and implementation of a variety of clinical initiatives, including crafting clinical recommendations.  Previously, she served as lead TBI SLP at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (Walter Reed), where she played an integral role in developing Walter Reed's Cognitive Rehabilitation program.  Prior to her work at Walter Reed, she served as the lead SLP for the day treatment program at the National Rehabilitation Hospital, where she coordinated individual- and group-based therapy aimed at transitioning patients with brain injuries to home and community.  Ms. Eshel has a history of developing innovative evidence-based programs, resources, and measurement tools to improve clinical practice and outcomes, both at the level of direct patient care as well as team and institution-wide.  She has won a number of research and clinical awards, and frequently presents at both local and national conferences. 

Dan Ding, PhD

Dan Ding, PhD

Rehabilitation Scientist / Faculty

Human Engineering Research Laboratories




Dr. Dan Ding, is a Rehabilitation Scientist at the Human Engineering Research Laboratories, Department of Rehabilitation Science of Technology, University of Pittsburgh. She is now involved in the research projects including wheelchair back-driving study and force sensing joystick study. She received her PhD degree in Mechanical and Automation Engineering from the Chinese University of Hong Kong, HK SAR, in October 2001. She graduated with honor from Harbin Institute of Technology, China, in 1995 with the B.E. in Mechanical Engineering and the M.E. in Robotics in 1997. Her research interests include robotics, multi-fingered robot hands, dexterous manipulation, virtual reality and wheelchair control. She has published over 10 papers in refereed professional journals and international conference proceedings. She is a member of IEEE.

Katherine Stout, PT, DPT, NCS, MBA

Katherine Stout, PT, DPT, NCS, MBA

Director of Clinical Affairs

Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center




Dr. Katherine Stout, is Portfolio Manager and Scientific Advisor with General Dynamics Information Technology. She currently is working with the Clinical and Rehabilitative Medicine Research Program, Neuromusculoskeletal Portfolio, Ft Detrick, MD, providing scientific portfolio analyses and monitoring progress of rehabilitation research efforts. Previously Dr. Stout was the Physical Therapist and Chief of Telerehabilitation for the Army’s Northern Region Medical Command providing strategic leadership for clinical program development and service line growth. Dr. Stout has lectured and taught nationally on Brain Injury Rehabilitation and Telerehabilitation. She currently holds adjunct faculty appointment at The University of Maryland, School of Medicine; and serves as a board member and APTA Liaison for the Maryland Board of Physical Therapy Examiners.
Dr. Stout is on several committees to examine and create Telerehabilitation development plans with both the American Telemedicine Association and the American Physical Therapy Association. She is an expert in the complexities involved with developing Telehealth programs and examination of business practices and financial analysis to determine best practices for telehealth.

Scott C. Livingston, PhD, PT, ATC

Scott C. Livingston, PhD, PT, ATC

Director of Education

Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center




Dr. Scott Livingston has served as the Education Director for the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center (DVBIC) since January 2015. Previously, he was the Program Manager for the Warrior Adaptive Reconditioning Program of Wounded Warrior Battalion East – one of two Wounded Warrior Battalion components of the U.S. Marine Corps’ Wounded Warrior Regiment - from 2013 to 2015. Prior to working with the Federal Government, Dr. Livingston held several academic positions at the University of Kentucky (physical therapy, athletic training, and rehabilitation sciences faculty member, 2009-2013), the George Washington University (physical therapy and athletic training faculty, 2006-2009), and Gannon University (physical therapy, sport and exercise science faculty, 1996-2002). He served as a Lieutenant, Medical Service Corps (Physical Therapist) in the U.S. Navy from 1988-1996. He received his Ph.D. in Kinesiology (with a concentration in Sports Medicine) from the University of Virginia in 2007, his M.S. in Advanced Physical Therapy (post-professional) from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1994, and his B.S. in Physical Therapy (entry-level) from the Ohio University in 1988.  Dr. Livingston is board certified as a an athletic trainer (ATC) by the National Athletic Trainers’ Association Board of Certification since 2001. He has worked in a variety of clinical settings in both physical therapy and athletic training, ranging from the inpatient and outpatient hospital setting to Division I, II and III intercollegiate athletics. His area of research expertise is the evaluation and management of sport-related concussion/mild traumatic brain injury; he as numerous professional publications and conference presentations on the electrophysiologic assessment of concussion in an athletic population.

Bre Myers, Au.D, PhD

Bre Myers, Au.D, PhD

Assistant Professor

Pennsylvania College of Optometry



Dr. Myers graduated from Bloomsburg University with a Masters in Audiology and then Salus University with a Doctorate in audiology. Dr. Myers is Assistant Professor at Salus University’s Osborne College of Audiology. She is an on campus clinic preceptor and teaches the vestibular science sequence in the residential program. She also teaches in Salus University’s online Au. D. bridge and Advanced Certificate in Vestibular Disorders programs. Dr. Myers created “The Vestibular Learning Manual” which was published by Plural Publishing in 2010. She has presented at a number of state and national meetings regarding evidence based practices, ethical considerations in preceptorship, and incorporating bedside evaluations into basic evaluations. She is currently a PhD candidate in Salus University’s Biomedicine and Research Graduate Program. Her current areas of research include investigating acoustic stimulus effects on functional balance measures including those with noise induced hearing loss, and those with TBI. She is also co-director of Salus University’s Hearing, Vision and Balance Clinic, an interdisciplinary pilot program. Long term goals include investigating the areas of overlap between vestibular and ocular motor function in those with persistent complaints of functional impairments.


Louis M. French, Psy.D

Louis M. French, Psy.D

Director of Operations

National Intrepid Center of Excellence (NICoE)




Dr. French is the Deputy Director for Operations at the National Intrepid Center of Excellence (NICoE), Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (WRNMMC). He served as the Chief, Traumatic Brain Injury at Walter Reed Army Medical Center prior to the BRAC integration of Walter Reed and National Naval Medical Center, and in that role at WRNMMC, prior to the integration of all TBI services on the WRNMMC campus in late 2014. He is chairman of the Joint Traumatic Brain Injury Task Force which coordinates TBI care in the National Capitol Region Medical Directorate. He is also the site director for the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center at Walter Reed, the largest site in that network.  He is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the screening, assessment, and rehabilitation of those with TBI at the flagship military care facility in the DoD network. He holds faculty positions in the Departments of Neurology and Rehabilitation at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. Dr. French received his doctorate in clinical psychology, focused on assessment, from the George Washington University. He completed fellowships in clinical and experimental neuropsychology at the National Institute of Mental Health and in neuropsychology, focusing on traumatic brain injury, at the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. 

In his current role, Dr. French has participated in multiple Federal panels and workgroups about TBI in the military, helping to shape current policy on screening and treatment for TBI on the battlefield and at home.  These included the Army Surgeon General’s Taskforce on TBI, whose report provided the foundation for the structure of TBI screening and treatment that is currently in place in the DoD. He was one of the authors who reshaped the SAC to construct the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation (MACE), which is the standard for concussion screening in theater.  At WRNMMC, he participates in a diversified research portfolio. He is principal investigator on multiple studies of TBI in returning Service Members, including the congressionally mandated 15-year natural history of TBI in military service members study. He is a lead investigator and co-Director of the Phenotyping Core with the Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (CNRM), a program that integrates research efforts on TBI and PTSD between the DoD and the National Institutes of Health.  He has published over 60 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters in the area of military TBI and neuropsychology.

Grant L. Iverson, PhD

Grant L. Iverson, PhD 

Professor, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation,

Harvard Medical School /

Director, MassGeneral Hospital for ChildrenTM Sport Concussion Program /

Associate Director, Traumatic Brain Injury Program

Home Base, A Red Sox Foundation and Massachusetts General Hospital Program




Dr. Grant Iverson is a Professor in the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at Harvard Medical School. He is the Director of the MassGeneral Hospital for ChildrenTM Sport Concussion Program. He also serves as the Associate Director of the Traumatic Brain Injury Program for Home Base, a Red Sox Foundation and Massachusetts General Hospital Program. He works as a contractor doing TBI research for the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center. He is a neuropsychologist and clinician scientist in the area of outcome from mild traumatic brain injury in athletes, civilians, service members, and veterans. Over the course of his career, he has published more than 330 empirical articles, reviews, and book chapters.

Dr. Iverson serves in an advisory capacity to organizations and governments on matters relating to mild injuries to the brain in sports, civilian life, and military service. He served on the consensus panels for the 3rd and 4th International Conferences on Concussion in Sport in Zurich, Switzerland in 2008 and 2012, and the 5th International Conference in Berlin in 2016. He was a founding member of the Traumatic Brain Injury Subcommittee of the Defense Health Board, a civilian advisory board to the United States Secretary of Defense. He served as an Advisor to the Neurocognitive Disorders Workgroup (Traumatic Brain Injury) for the Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5). He is the immediate past president of the National Academy of Neuropsychology.

Johanna Smith, MA

Johanna Smith, MA

Longitudinal Studies Program Analyst

Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center





Ms. Smith has over a decade of experience in clinical neuropsychology, longitudinal research, and traumatic brain injury (TBI). She is currently a Longitudinal Studies Program Analyst at the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center (DVBIC) working to assess challenges, solutions, and opportunities impacting DVBIC’s portfolio of longitudinal studies, including the Congressionally-mandated 15 Year Studies and the Improved Understanding of Medical and Psychological (IMAP) Needs in Veterans and Services Members with TBI, among others. The goal is to increase the successes of these studies and contribute to better alignment of federal TBI longitudinal research under the National Research Action Plan. Prior to joining the Federal Government, Ms. Smith served in a contract position as a DVBIC Research Coordinator at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center for two of the 15 Year Longitudinal Studies: the Natural History Study of TBI (Brief Pathway) and the 15 Year Caregiver Study, both under the Scientific Direction of Dr. Tracey Brickell. Ms. Smith brought with her to DVBIC five years of neuropsychological assessment experience from a clinical practice focused on learning disabilities, developmental disabilities, and emotional regulation under the supervision of Bill Stixrud, Ph.D. and six years of research experience from the Naval Research Laboratory, the American Institutes for Research, and Children’s National Medical Center. Ms. Smith earned her B.S. Degree with Distinction in Psychology from James Madison University and her M.A. in Psychology from American University. 


Faculty for this activity have been required to disclose all relationships with any proprietary entity producing health care goods or services, with the exemption of non-profit or government organizations and non-health care related companies.

No significant financial relationships with commercial entities were disclosed by:

No relevant financial relationships with commercial entities were disclosed by:

COL (Ret.) Paul F. Pasquina, MD, Course Director
Dr. Louis M. French                                      
Dr. Grant Iverson
Dr. John Corrigan                                          
Dan Ding, PhD
Ronald Drach                                                 
Dr. Scott Livingston, PT, ATC
Inbal Eshel, MA CCC-SLP                           
Dr. Bre Myers, AuD, PhD
Dr. Katherine Stout, PT, DPT, MBA            
Johanna M. Smith, M.A.
Dr. Lynn Greenspan, OD, FAAO                 
Amy Donovan, Course Coordinator

The following information was disclosed:

Rory Cooper, PhD, Course Director.   Patent Agreements: AT Sciences; Three Rivers Holdings.

CME Accreditation and Designation Statement 

This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the accreditation requirements and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint providership of University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and the Center for Rehabilitation Science Research at the Uniformed Services University for the Health Science. The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine designates this live activity for a maximum of 6.5 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditsTM. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. 

Other health care professionals are awarded 0.67 continuing education units (CEU's) which are equal to 6.5 contact hours.

Disclaimer Statement

The information presented at this CME program represents the views and opinions of the individual presenters, and does not constitute the opinion or endorsement of, or promotion by, the UPMC Center for Continuing Education in the Health Sciences, UPMC/University of Pittsburgh Medical Center or Affiliates and University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. Reasonable efforts have been taken intending for educational subject matter to be presented in a balanced, unbiased fashion and in compliance with regulatory requirements. However, each program attendee must always use his/her own personal and professional judgment when considering further application of this information, particularly as it may relate to patient diagnostic or treatment decisions including, without limitation, FDA-approved uses and any off-label uses.